Since the 1980s, when corporations started taking over the gaming industry, slot machines have been the backbone of the Casino industry
Sloth machine uses an Algorithm called the Random Number Generator(RNG). This algorithm is preferentially used as the primary determinant of outcomes because older slot machines made it easy to cheat.
How do slot machine algorithms work
The random number generator algorithm determines which player wins and how much they win using mathematical formulas with an initial independent variable (input value) which determines the dependent variable (output value)
The input value used depends on the actual time a player presses the play button on the machine. When a player presses the play button, the algorithm randomly picks a number between 0 – 100. If the output is greater than 55, the player wins. Else, the house wins
What is a Slot’s Random Number Generator?
Random number generator in slot machines as the name implies generates Random Numbers. The numbers generated using the random number generator are taken from either an unlimited or limited distribution which ultimately determines the output
There are basically two types of random number generators which includes the Pseudo Random Number Generators and True Random Number Generator
True Random Number Generator(TRNG)
A true random number generator is also called a Hardware random number generator (HRNG). Physical factors such as wind direction, angle of throw, and the flatness of the surface affect the results of the numbers generated through this process.
A true Random Number Generator considers the actual randomness or the natural entropy of the system being used
Some examples of a true random number generator are Roulette, coin flipping, and dice rolling.
Using Roulette as our primary example, the ball spins around the wheel of the machine, which exposes the ball to the natural entropy (randomness) of the environment such as the roughness of the wheel, wind, and the temperature of the room. All these factors contribute to the result
Pseudo-Random Number Generators(PRNG)
Pseudo-Random Number Generators (PRNG) unlike True Random Number Generators are not affected by entropy
To make up for the lack of actual randomness, Pseudo Random Number Generators give results in short initial values, after going through a series of complex equations.
A pseudo-random number generator uses a seed value or key to create unpredictable patterns in a random sequence. While pseudo-generated seeds are very efficient in generating random slots results, their results are not random
Pseudo Random Number Generator is the best cost-efficient method by Slot machine manufacturers to create and generate almost authentic random results
How does Slot RNG work
The slot machine RNG is a Pseudo Random Number Generator. It doesn’t generate random numbers, but a random sequence of numbers
For the random sequence of numbers generated by a slot machine RNG, every virtual stop point could likely end up on the Pay line.
Generally, on a slot machine, each reel symbol is assigned a numerical value
Let us assume that we have a 5-reel slot machine, and each reel has 12 symbols
The RNG algorithm will generate values between 1-12 for each of the 5-reel on the machine.
The output for this machine will be 5 different symbols, and if the 5 random output symbols make a winning combination, you will be paid according to the amount on the chart
Seed- also called the key, determines the slot results. The seed is the base value of the Pseudo Random Number Generators algorithm.
If the reel is spun, the slot machine RNG makes use of a seed in a series of long complex equations to evaluate the symbols that will be the output on the pay lines. Despite the complex nature of the equations a seed undergoes, every seed number outputs the same results
Slot machines are programmed and developed so that every slot seed generates an output(whether losing or winning).
The slot machine PRNG algorithm picks its seed majorly through the system clock. Although there are other ways for a slot machine to pick its seed, this method is preferable as it is set in a way that the results cannot be predicted
For authentic results, entropy or actual randomness is very important. Adding entropy or a degree of actual randomness ensures that every spin at the slot machine gives you an actual probability of matching the 5 highest-paying symbols on the reel, or even hitting jackpot.
The seed for the pseudo Random Number Generator algorithm used in slot machines is gotten from simulating entropy. Sources of entropy for slot machines include system clocks, mouse movement, keystroke rates, and clicks
Entropy brings the need for security since the slot machine uses the PRNG algorithm which can lead to illegal exploits if the algorithm can be predicted
Since online slots cannot access the physical hardware needed to create natural entropy results, it uses cryptographic hash functions such as SHA-1 or MD6 to present unpredictable outputs
The method through which this software generates random numbers for the online slot is unknown
Physical Generation Methods
Physical methods of generating random numbers are best explained using flipping a coin or rolling a die.
The results of this method are affected by natural entropy and manual effort. Vintage slot machines use a breaking mechanism to generate their output through this method.
The best way for online slots to achieve the physical method of generating random numbers through natural entropy is through software like cryptographic hash functions
While this software isn’t guaranteed to produce 100% random numbers, it could recreate almost the same results as physically generated methods.
Computational Generation Methods
Computer generation methods are usually used by online slots to know the amount they would payout for each spin. A common example of a computer generation method is the Pseudo Random Number Generator. PRNG is used to create unpredictable outputs using just a seed or a base value.
The common way to generate random results using computational generational methods is through PRNG’s Mersenne Twister which creates simulated statistical randomness
Slots require more complicated and longer equations for their computational generation algorithm. Instead of creating random numbers, slots create a sequence of random numbers, which translates to the sequential number on the reel symbols.
This way every reel combination has a possibility of touching the pay line
How to beat a slot RNG
In reality, there is no way to crack or exploit a random number generator slot machine.
If not all, then at least 90% of slot machines in popular casinos have unpredictable patterns.
There is no specific way or sequence of hitting the auto spin button or specific bet amount that can influence the seed or results of a slot machine.
That said, the main question is: how possible is it to beat a random number generator in slot machines?
The possible ways to influence the seed or results of an RNG slot machine are; Slot RNG Timing and Non-Uniform RNG Distribution
Slot RNG Timing
The most common source of keys, seeds, or base values for slot machines using the PRNG algorithm is the system clocks. Using the system clock, every seed will continuously create the same number sequence or a symbol in each reel that shows a pay line.
RNG attackers have found a way to recognize these patterns on a physical slot machine. They capture a video clip of the slot machine and send it to an application on their mobile phones, which puts the sequences and times of the slot machine in a tabular form
Armed with this knowledge, RNG cheaters will mostly hit the spin button when the seed is set to hit a massive payout or a jackpot
If you don’t have the app or software for this, you can still discover the right pattern for the slot machine. All you need to do is continuously play a specific game for as long as possible. It’s advised you do this with little amounts so you can play for a long time
Although this is a long process, it increases the possibility of you winning the largest possible payout available in the game
Non-Uniform RNG Distribution
Slot machines in major casinos always get non-uniform RNG distribution of numbers, which is almost unpredictable.
With very complex algorithms, these digital slot RNG machines can get almost similar Random results as those generated by vintage slots
The seed and RNG algorithm of almost every slot game is uncontrollable. You can only limit the non-uniform RNG distribution to help you figure out a pattern in the slot machine
To limit the non-uniform RNG distribution, you need to play on limited reels (at most 3 reels), limited symbols, and pay lines. Playing on a limited number of reels is likened to playing an intense game of concentration.
How random are slots?
How can you be sure that the results of an online slot game are truly random?
Many online slot game software assures their players that their games generate random outputs by having the game tested by third-party RNG testers.
One of the most trusted RNG tester companies is iTech labs
The company checks for statistical randomness, non-repeatability of the algorithm, the internal state of the RNG, and the predictability of the RNG
These tests are carried out to ensure that the results are set in a way that provides equal opportunity for players to win fortunes that will change their lives.
Most online slot game software state that they are RNG verified, but to be sure, check on the license and certification of their software
What RNG means for slot players
For slot players, RNG means equal benefits and opportunities due to the almost total randomness of the slot games. This is only achieved when the online slot is certified.
This almost total randomness is what makes slot games enjoyable for players. The players always feel the real thrill of entering a bonus game or matching the highest payout symbols on the reel, because there is a probability of hitting the Pay line.
Make sure to always check the certifications and licenses of online slot games and casinos to ensure you are getting the real experience and not being tricked.
Slot RNG and Randomness FAQs
Here we provide answers to frequently asked questions about RNG, the randomness of slot machines, and lots more.
How fast does RNG in slot machines work?
The RNG algorithm in slot machines works in milliseconds. This means that for every millisecond, the algorithm generates a random result.
Even when no one is playing, the algorithm keeps calculating, so that once the spin button is hit, the result is already available.
Do an online Slot use an RNG
Yes, online slot games use the RNG algorithm to evaluate what symbols appear on the pay lines by generating random results.
How do Slot machines use RNG
Slot machines use RNG to determine every slot result, by generating a random number sequence to create results that cannot be predicted.
Each of this sequence generated relates to a symbol, giving the combination of these symbols the possibility of being on the pay line.
How to time an RNG on a slot machine?
Since most seed or key of slot games are generated using the system clock, to time the RNG, video clips of each spin are taken to know when a favourable seed appears.
While taking video clips is illegal, you can legitly time an RNG slot machine by playing a particular slot continuously.
How to manipulate the RNG in a video slot machine?
The RNG of nearly every slot game both physical and online games cannot be influenced or controlled by anyone, not the player or the owner of the game. This is because these slot games use a system clock and other algorithms.
Can you hack an online Slot’s RNG?
Although it’s nearly impossible and extremely difficult, a slot machine RNG can be hacked.
Crafty cheaters and criminals can crack or hack the RNG if they can gain administrative access to any slot game and manipulate the RNG. For this reason, top-rated slot game providers use high-security encryptions, making it almost impossible to hack their slots.
Is a casino remotely controlling its Random Number Generator?
Licensed and certified slot games and casinos have very strong and almost unbreakable security on their algorithm and software that prevents even the casino from influencing the game’s RNG.
Besides, licensed bitcoin casinos will be in great trouble if it’s discovered that they are influencing the slots RNG
Does a slot random number generator uses AI or ML?
Machine language (ML) is used by most slot games to generate random results. Al is rarely used because it cannot digest very large amounts of data and turn it into readable information in milliseconds.
What Algorithm do slot machines use?
Most online slot games and modern casinos make use of Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) to generate random results. This algorithm works by using a random seed or key through the computer system time to generate a sequence (numbered) that determines what symbols appear on the pay lines.
A slot machine’s random number generator (RNG) is intentionally designed and programmed to be as unpredictable as manually flipping a coin or throwing a die. To allow players to win a high payout or hit the jackpot, it’s protected from the influence of the casino’s management.